State) authorities but by electors voted directly by citizens—though this is by member unit decision (U. Such federal political orders develop from unitary states, as governments devolve authority to alleviate threats of unrest or secession by territorially clustered minorities.
Such federal political orders often grant some member units particular domains of sovereignty e.g.
over language and cultural rights in an federation, while maintaining broad scope of action for the central government and majorities. In addition to territorially organized federal political orders, other interesting alternatives to unitary states occur when member units are constituted by groups sharing ethnic, religious or other characteristics.
These systems are sometimes referred to as ‘non-territorial’ federations.
Each association claims autonomy within its own sphere against intervention by other associations.
Borrowing a term originally used for the alliance between God and men, Althusius holds that associations enter into secular agreements——to live together in mutual benevolence.
Althusius was strongly influenced by French Huguenots and Calvinism.In contrast, ‘confederation’ has come to mean a political order with a weaker center than a federation, often dependent on the constituent units (Watts 1998, 121).Typically, in a confederation a) member units may legally exit, b) the center only exercises authority delegated by member units, c) the center is subject to member unit veto on many issues, d) center decisions bind member units but not citizens directly, e) the center lacks an independent fiscal or electoral base, f) the member units do not cede authority permanently to the center.In such as Russia, Canada, the European Union, Spain, or India the bundles may be different among member units; some member units may for instance have special rights regarding language or culture.Some asymmetric arrangements involve one smaller state and a larger, where the smaller partakes in governing the larger while retaining sovereignty on some issues (Elazar 1987, Watts 1998). Federations can involve member units in central decision-making in at least two different ways in various forms of arrangement); in addition they often constitute one central body that interacts with other such bodies, for instance where member unit government representatives form an Upper House with power to veto or postpone decisions by majority or qualified majority vote ( arrangements).In comparison, decentralized authority in unitary states can typically be revoked by the central legislature at will.